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Endoscopy is a procedure where a thin, lighted tube (endoscope) is inserted into the uterus to examine it for infections, diseases or any abnormalities. The two frequently carried out endoscopy procedures are hysteroscopy and laparoscopy.
Hysteroscopy is the inspection of the uterine cavity by passing the endoscope through the cervix. It allows for the diagnosis of problems in the cavity of the uterus and also serves as a method for correction for most problems (operative hysteroscopy). Common conditions that can be treated through hysteroscopy are tumours like polyps, fibroids, abnormalities like septum, etc.
Laparoscopy involves placement of the endoscope in to the abdominal cavity, generally through the umbilicus to visualise the uterus, tubes, ovaries and the pelvis. The patency of the tubes is also checked at the same time by injecting a blue dye. Certain abnormalities like fibroids, endometriosis, adhesions etc. can also be treated at the same time (operative laparoscopy).